Alexandria (اسكندرية, pronounced [eskendeˈrejjæ] in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and the second largest metropolitan area in Egypt after Greater Cairo by size and population, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. It is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast.
Alexandria is Egypt's largest seaport, serving approximately 80% of Egypt's imports and exports. It is an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also an important tourist resort. Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It became an important centre of the Hellenistic civilisation and remained the capital of Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost one thousand years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).
Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world; now replaced by a modern one); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbour of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.
From the late 19th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria was the second most powerful city of the ancient world after Rome.
We visited Alexandria in 2005, and enjoyed the experience immensely, two of the most memorable sites being the new Library of Alexandria and the house of Constantine Cavafy (1863 – 1933), the great Greek Alexandrine poet.
This post is part of the Our World Tuesday meme.